Menu:

Manassas National Battlefield Park

Jackson Monument

Stonewall Jackson Monument (19K)

Image 1: Stonewall Jackson monument. This dramatic, stylized monument is to then Brigadier General Thomas J. Jackson. The monument is located near the Visitor Center, as is Bee's monument. The monument's inscription is "There stands Jackson like a stone wall," quoting Brig. Gen. Bernard E. Bee.

Bee Monument (22K)

Image 2: Bee monument. This monument is to Brig. Gen. Barnard Elliott Bee, erected by the Southern Memorial Association on July 21, 1939. The monument's inscription states the following:

GENERAL
BARNARD ELLIOTT BEE
OF SOUTH CAROLINA
COMMANDER THIRD BRIGADE
ARMY OF THE SHENANDOAH
WAS KILLED HERE JULY 31, 1861
JUST BEFORE HIS DEATH
TO RALLY HIS SCATTERED TROOPS
HE GAVE THE COMMAND
"FORM. FORM. THERE STANDS JACKSON
LIKE A STONE WALL.
RALLY BEHIND THE VIRGINIANS."

Unfortunately the monument only commemorates Bee's words, and not his deeds on the battlefield. There is also some question as to the accuracy of the quote.

The story is one of the classics of the American Civil War, yet no one knows the definitive truth. At 7 a.m. Jackson was ordered by Brig. Gen. Pierre G. T. Beauregard to support the brigades of Brig. Gen. Milledge Bonham and Brig. Gen. Phillip Cocke between Ball's and Mitchell's Fords. Before he moved, Jackson heard firing off to his left. He moved there instead, coming to the south slope of Henry Hill by 11:30 a.m. He reported his position to Bee. Jackson placed the artillery battery of Capt. John D. Imboden, and one of his own batteries, in the center of the hill. He placed his regiments on either side of the artillery and behind the artillery. Once placed Jackson had his men lie down behind the crest of the hill, much like the Duke of Wellington did with his British troops at the Battle of Waterloo. Jackson was determined to wait for the impending Union attack — Union troops were seen charging down Matthews Hill north of him — or wait for further orders.

As they lay there Bee's men were fleeing off to their right. The brigades of Bee, Colonel Francis Bartow, and Col. Nathan Evans had already engaged the Federals. Since the battle was coming to Henry Hill, Jackson saw no reason to move from his strong defensive position. Shot and shell flew over his troops, but they were protected behind the hill's crest.

Bee rode up to Jackson and said, "General, they are beating us back!"

"Sir, we'll give them the bayonet," replied Jackson.

Bee seemed to take this as an order. He saluted and returned to the remnant of his brigade. The only regiment left with any sense of order was the 4th Alabama. The remaining company commanders decided that Captain Thomas Goldsby should command the regiment. Goldsby was either present when Bee arrived and ordered the regiment, or he heard the story from those that were within earshot of Bee. In either case, Goldsby stated a few days later that Bee called, "This is all of my brigade that I can find — will you follow me back to where the firing is going on?" Goldsby reported that the men responded, "To the death."

Other men who were present gave a different version a couple of days later to a newspaper reporter. They stated that Bee said, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Follow me." Three days later, Col. Chestnut of Beauregard's staff said to his wife that Jackson's men "stood so stock still under fire that they are called a stone wall!"

Major Thomas Rhett of Jackson's staff claimed that Bee was angry with Jackson for standing on the hill and not coming to his aid. Some have thus claimed that if Bee did make the "stone wall" comment, it was sarcastic. After all, Jackson had his men laying down, not "standing". Regardless of whether or not Bee made the comment, the "stone wall" nickname stuck and Jackson was known as "Stonewall" ever after.

Bee did not survive the battle in order to clarify what was said. He led the 4th Alabama straight at the Union line. The regiment moved barely 100 yards before it started to break up. At least one of Jackson's men saw Bee turn his horse toward the Union line alone and deliberately ride into the the Union line's fire. Soon after Bee was wounded. He was taken to the rear by one of his aides and he died a few hours later.

These photographs were taken in May, 1999 with a Nikon F-601 autofocus SLR, using a Nikkor 24mm - 50mm f2.8 wide angle zoom lens. The images were captured on Kodak Gold 200 film.